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Summary of Terms

Ability to Pay

A borrower’s capacity to fully pay his loan obligations.
Source:Businessdictionary.com, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ability-to-pay-principle.html

Associate Circuit Court

A division of a Missouri State court, which can hear cases with amounts up to $25,000. This includes small claims cases.
Source:Missouri Courts, http://www.courts.mo.gov/hosted/circuit13/other/definitions.htm

Circuit Court

A court in which trials occur. Within a circuit court, there are various divisions, such as associate circuit, small claims, municipal, family, probate, criminal and juvenile. Missouri is divided into 45 judicial circuits.
Source:Missouri Courts, http://www.courts.mo.gov/hosted/circuit13/other/definitions.htm

Code 1000/2000

An administrative and an operational law enforcement mutual aid contingency plan which coordinates the commitment and deployment of police resources. The Code 1000 plan applies to the geographic limits of St. Louis County, Missouri; the Code 2000 plan applies to the geographic limits of the City of St. Louis, Missouri.
Source:Better Together STL, http://www.bettertogetherstl.com/files/better-together-stl/Maryland%20Heights%20PD%20-%20%20%20Code%201000%20%20-%202013%20Plan.pdf

Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA)

A commission created in 1979 as a credentialing authority through the joint efforts of a) International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP); b) National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE); National Sheriffs’ Association (NSA); and the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF).
Source:CALEA, http://www.calea.org/content/commission

Community Policing

A philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues, such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime.
Source:U.S. Department of Justice’s Community-Oriented Policing (COPS) Office, http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/january_2008/nugget.html, http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/vets-to-cops/e030917193-CP-Defined.pdf

Constitutional Procedural Rights

The right to standards established by procedural law, which governs the mechanics of how a legal case flows, including steps to process a case. Procedural law adheres to due process, which is a right granted to U.S. citizens by the 14th Amendment; due process refers to legal rights owed to a person in criminal and civil actions.
Source:Legal Dictionary, http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Procedural+right

Critical Incident

Under the Fourth Amendment, when a law enforcement officer is pursuing a fleeing suspect, he or she may not use deadly force to prevent escape unless “the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious physical injury to the officer or others.”
Source:Cornell Law School, http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/facpub/273/

Diversion Option

The conditional channeling of youth in conflict with the law away from judicial proceedings through the development and implementation of procedures, structures, and programs that enable many –possibly most — to be dealt with by non-judicial bodies, thereby avoiding the negative effects of formal judicial proceedings and a criminal record.
Source:UNICEF, http://www.unicef.org/tdad/index_56037.html

Equal Protection Clause

The Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amendment of the U.S. Constitution prohibits states from denying any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. In other words, the laws of a state must treat an individual in the same manner as others in similar conditions and circumstances. A violation would occur, for example, if a state prohibited an individual from entering into an employment contract because he or she was a member of a particular race. The equal protection clause is not intended to provide “equality” among individuals or classes but only “equal application” of the laws. The result, therefore, of a law is not relevant so long as there is no discrimination in its application. By denying states the ability to discriminate, the equal protection clause of the Constitution is crucial to the protection of civil rights.
Source:Cornell University Law School, https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/equal_protection

FirstNet

Also known as the First Responders Network; a congressionally mandated nationwide wireless broadband network that enables police, firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and other first responders to effectively communicate with one another.
Source:National Telecommunications and Information Administration, http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/firstnet_fnn_presentation_09-25-2012_final.pdf

Historical Trauma

Cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations manifesting in certain cultural, ethnic, religious, and racial groups
Source:Substance Abuse & Mental Health Abuse (SAMHSA), http://gainscenter.samhsa.gov/cms-assets/documents/93078-842830.historical-trauma.pdf

Impartial Policing Training

A training program based on the principles that bias is a normal human attribute and often unconscious or implicit, and that implicit biases can influence our actions, particularly in spontaneous situations. Therefore, it develops a model training program on racially biased policing that recognizes the causes of racially-biased policing and its perceptions that is adoptable by law enforcement training academies.
Source:U.S. Department of Justice’s Community-Oriented Policing (COPS) Office, http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/conference/2011/FairandImpartialPolicing-Pearsall.pdf

Independent Investigative Board

A board comprised of citizens who contribute to the accountability of law enforcement agencies through the following:a) the ability and authority to investigate potential wrongdoing by officers and to make recommendations for prosecutions that are then evaluated by special prosecutors; b) a sufficient budget; c) the ability and authority to issue subpoenas and search warrants; d) a well-defined jurisdiction and mandate (e.g. civilian review board, citizen review board, civilian oversight board).
Source:Harvard Law Review, “Enhancing Accountability and Trust with Independent Investigations of Police Lethal Force”

International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)

An organization that addresses issues confronting law enforcement through advocacy, programs, research, and training and that seeks to promote advanced administrative, technical, and operational police practices; foster cooperation and exchange of information and experience amongst police leaders and police organizations of technical standing throughout the world.
Source:IACP, http://www.theiacp.org/Mission

Juvenile (person)

A person who has not attained his/her eighteenth birthday.
Source:U.S. Departmwnt of Justice, http://www.justice.gov/usam/criminal-resource-manual-38-juvenile-defined

Law Enforcement Incident Command System (LEICS)

A management system designed to enable effective, efficient incident management by integrating a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure. Through the use of standardized positions (e.g., incident commander), common terminology (e.g., incident command post), and consistent management philosophies (e.g., unity of command), ICS seeks to facilitate the rapid integration of personnel from different agencies and entities into one organization to meet a common objective.
Source:Seattle University Law Review, http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2189&context=sulr

Missouri Highway Patrol

Highway patrol agency that enforces traffic laws and promotes safety upon the highways, with jurisdiction anywhere within the state of Missouri; has a criminal investigation division that investigates crimes statewide; has received accreditation from the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA).
Source:Missouri State Highway Patrol, http://www.mshp.dps.missouri.gov/MSHPWeb/Root/index.html#

Missouri Revised Statute 56.110

Statute that provides, in relevant part, that:“If the prosecuting attorney and assistant prosecuting attorney be interested or shall have been employed as counsel in any case where such employment is inconsistent with the duties of his or her office, or shall be related to the defendant in any criminal prosecution, either by blood or by marriage, the court having criminal jurisdiction may appoint some other attorney to prosecute or defend the cause.
Source:Missouri General Assembly, http://www.moga.mo.gov/mostatutes/stathtml/05600001101.HTML

Missouri Statute 590.653.1

Statute that designates the power and duties of civilian review boards and that states the following:“Each city, county and city not within a county may establish a civilian review board, or may use an existing civilian review board which has been appointed by the local governing body, with the authority to investigate allegations of misconduct by local law enforcement officers towards members of the public. The members shall not receive compensation but shall receive reimbursement from the local governing body for all reasonable and necessary expenses.”
Source:Missouri General Assembly, http://www.moga.mo.gov/mostatutes/stathtml/59000006531.HTML

Mutual Aid Agreement

An agreement among emergency responders to lend assistance across jurisdictional boundaries.
Source:Missouri General Assembly, http://www.moga.mo.gov/mostatutes/stathtml/04400000901.HTML

New Media

Means of mass communication using digital technologies such as the Internet.
Source:New Media Institute (NMI), http://www.newmedia.org/what-is-new-media.html

Office of State Courts Administrator

Office that is responsible for providing administrative, business, and technology support services to the courts, and is organized by three divisions:Administrative Services Division; Court Business Services Division; and Information Technology Services Division.
Source:Missouri Courts, https://www.courts.mo.gov/page.jsp?id=233

Peace Officers Standards and Training (POST) Commission

Commission that establishes the core curriculum for the training of peace officers and formulates definitions, rules and regulations for the administration of the POST program.
Source:POST, http://dps.mo.gov/dir/programs/post/

Peace Officers Standards and Training (POST) Program

A regulatory program with responsibility for licensing peace officers, ensuring compliance with peace officer continuing education requirements, and conducting investigations for disciplining the licenses of peace officers as specified by Chapter 590, RSMo. The POST Program also licenses law enforcement basic training centers, basic training instructors, approves law enforcement training curricula, and provides staff support for the POST Commission.
Source:POST, http://dps.mo.gov/dir/programs/post/

Protecting Communities and Police Act of 2015 (S. 1245)

A bill to provide for oversight of, and place restrictions on, Federal programs that provide equipment to law enforcement agencies.
Source:Govtrack.us, https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/114/s1245

Restorative Justice

A philosophy of justice that focuses upon repairing or addressing the harms caused by and caused to social relationship when wrongdoing occurs, such that crime is not merely breaking the law, but a cause and effect of harms to people, relationships, and communities.
Source:Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Restorative_Justice.pdf

Serious Incident

Incidents involving alleged police misconduct and/or that can have the potential to damage community trust or confidence in the agency.
Source:21st Century Policing Task Force Final Report, http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/taskforce/TaskForce_FinalReport.pdf

Statutory Procedural Rights

The law which governs the manner in which rights are enforced and wrongs rectified. The law which prescribes the procedure to be followed in a case.
Source:Ballantine’s Law Dictionary

Supreme Court of Missouri

The highest court in Missouri where seven Supreme Court Justices hear appeals of decisions made in lower courts and interpret the laws and constitutions of Missouri and the United States.
Source:Missouri Courts, http://www.courts.mo.gov/hosted/circuit13/other/definitions.htm

Tactical Withdrawal

The use of force, including deadly force, will sometimes be necessary. But when violence is avoidable and when avoiding it doesn’t sacrifice the police mission, officers should be required to use tactical restraint even when that means holding their position or temporarily withdrawing.
Source:Harvard Law Review, http://cdn.harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/vol128_Stoughton.pdf

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